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Tratament comun în Mironovka. Descrierea și caracteristicile lemnului

Roma Layesh-Cheache from Comrat Town. Ethnosocial Aspects Roma are one of the oldest and least studied ethnic communities of the Republic of Moldova. After a period of social ignorance generated by the national policy of forced assimilation the complex issues of the Roma regained topicality.

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The social situation of the Roma can be approached from multiple perspectives: historical, ethnological, sociological, etc. Valorization of this ethnocultural heritage is one of the most important premises for the integration of the Tratament comun în Mironovka into modern society. Roma is currently one of the ethnic groups that attracts real interest through social or cultural tratament comun în Mironovka, that constitutes the population undergoing continuous change and considerably influenced by historical, political or economic factors specific to the evolution of the Moldovan territory.

The transition to democracy has created a space of freedom, influencing positively the preservation of Roma identity. This time the struggle to affirm a positive identity goes through the revaluation of the image and the social situation of the Roma.


Origin, language, customs, traditional occupations, living conditions and relations with the majority population became the subject of some insufficient studies and monographs on local Roma. This is one of the reasons why Roma should become a subject of serious field researches in every region. So in the period of June, the author undertook a planned trip at the expense of the Institute of Cultural Heritage of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova.

The aim of the trip was an ethnological investigation within the community of the Roma in the town of Comrat. Demographic situation.

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Their number diminished considerably in recent years because many of them have moved to live in other localities of the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. To a great extent, the mass migration of Roma from the town of Comrat was caused by heavy rainfalls on the 30th of May and 5th of June,which triggered the flood of the river Ialpug and inundation of houses and huts of the Roma in the Gypsy quarter Shanghai.

The same year the majority of the Roma tratament comun în Mironovka lived on M. Gorky street received material assistance to purchase new apartments or renovate their homes Annex 1. However, the sum of money given by the authorities 14, lei did not cover the cost of the apartments in Comrat because they were 10 times more expensive at that time.

Therefore the Roma had to buy cheaper houses in the neighbouring villages Ferapontievka or to move to live in Ukraine.

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So currently the only family living on the remnants of the Gypsy quarter Shanghai is that of Bludoi Zahar Dumitru. This family preferred to remain because a vast plain where one can breed poultry was formed near their house, on the place where a lot of Gypsies have lived until recently.

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And its better tratament comun în Mironovka live in a town than in a blind alley where no transport circulates and one cant even make a living Bludoi M.

The dispersed location of the Roma influenced their ethnic identity significantly.

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Ethnic identity. The ancestors of the Roma from Comrat town were not wandering Gypsy bands but pure, local Roma, natives. To be tratament comun în Mironovka pure Roma means: 1. To have pure blood, not to marry anyone of other nations, to keep Gypsy blood.

Enciclopedia Identitatii Romanesti Personalitati pagini | Pion Nion -

To speak a pure Gypsy language and not to use other words from foreign languages, to be able to answer in such a way that foreigners can not understand what you say to other Roma. To lead a decent life not to steal, not to lie, not to kill anyone and live with what God gives you.

Today in most cases these rules are no longer kept by the Roma from Comrat, because: tratament comun în Mironovka. During the Soviet period a lot of Roma girls from Comrat got specialized secondary education.

Working in the specialty, the girls went out of Gypsy environment and integrated into the society more easily. Having stable jobs, they got apartments from the government where they could invite guests; got rid of lice and misery of Gypsy huts. This social welfare led to mixed marriages between Roma girls and the representatives of other ethnic groups. In its turn, blood impurity brought more social and economic benefits: non-Roma tratament comun în Mironovka Gagauzians, Moldovans, Ukrainians have a more developed mentality, do not talk nonsense, do not beat their wives, do not take money from homes for drinking and gambling, work hard to maintain their families, respect women and care for children Vasilioglo E.

Currently there is no pure Gypsy language because Gypsies speak a lot of dialects. Before, when Gypsies lived in tents or huts, they only spoke Roma language among themselves because no one came to speak to them in another language. The baron the leader of the Roma was a person who contacted the majority population.

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Today most of the Roma from the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia speak Russian at home; the Gypsy language is only used when its necessary, because it is a poor language.

When Roma speak the Gypsy language, they unwittingly use the words from other languages, most often Moldavian and Russian words. So, the social integration has favoured the use of the ethnonym layesh by the Roma cheache from Comrat town.

Editor: Vidraşcu şi fiiiCorector: Valentina TifinCopertă şi machetă: Vladimir ZmeevTehnoredactare şi prepress: Marin PopaEditura a depus toate eforturile pentru a-i identifica pe deţinătoriidrepturilor de autor asupra fotografiilor reproduse şi ne ceremscuze anticipat pentru orice omisiune neintenţionată din listade mai sus. Ne-ar face plăcere să inserăm menţiunea de rigoareîn orice ediţie ulterioară a acestei enciclopedii.

In the past the Roma from Comrat were labelled with this appellation by the assimilated Roma Roma Vlachs who couldnt speak the Gypsy language, and the Roma cheache were called layesh. Despite the fact that the meaning of the term layesh is rather uncertain and varied, many of the Roma found it more convenient for self-identification, since they did not have pure blood and did not speak pure Roma any longer.

Thus, mixed marriages and reduced use of the Roma language in the families led to the gradual transformation of a part of tratament comun în Mironovka Roma cheache into the Roma layesh. On the basis of the information collected by the author in the field and the analysis exacerbarea artritei tratamentului articulației genunchiului historical and ethnographic studies concerning Gypsies, several meanings of the term layesh have been detected: 1.

Ion I. Agârbiceanu Agârbiceanu, Ion Alba — A  frecventat cu întreruperi Seminarul teologic al Universităţii din Budapesta. Apoi, ca bursier, a studiat, tot la Budapesta, filologia clasică şi istoria.

Layesh Lie, leain, leinat a Roma famishing with hunger, a poor Roma. Roma layesh is a starving Roma who due to hunger and poverty often becomes extremely weak Dinu Gh. This extreme social situation characteristic for Bessarabian Roma is described by the researchers of the late XIXth century: It will be difficult to find people poorer than Gypsies. Having no stable jobs, tratament comun în Mironovka all their lives moving from one place to another, the Gypsies actually can not get safe and stable income.

Gypsies income is connected with providence. Getting occasional profits, they have to wait for other occasions. However, Gypsies are caracterized by considerable indifference that amplifies their poverty; show reduced care for their families and themselves. Indifference is characteristic for all the nomadic and wandering tribes, for Gypsies as well.

Gypsies are poor, especially on more densely populated areas, such as Bessarabia and the Crimea.

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The most luxurious house the Bessarabian Gypsies, so-called Pharaohs, have is a hut. Their food is not good either. They eat tratament comun în Mironovka falls in their hands. Of course, they never bake bread themselves, but they do eat the bread made and given to them by others after they beg for it, Today most of the Tratament comun în Mironovka layesh from Comrat tratament comun în Mironovka against poverty to get a slice of bread.

It is important not to steal and not to kill people. Those who have built palaces live alone and are always afraid of losing something. Their life is dull; the rich do not let anyone in to hide their wealth from people. While the gate of a poor Gypsy is not connected with a chain of iron, the house has no lock.

Every evening poor Roma get together and enjoy a meal of a few plain dishes but a lot of talks and joy. Some time ago it was easier to live because the state didnt let people die of hunger, provided jobs, but now one has to survive alone.

When needed, poor Roma are always ready to help and can lend their last money without asking to pay interest.

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But the rich do not invite us to weddings, funerals. They are ashamed to sit at the same table with the Gypsies poorer than them.

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Thus, after becoming rich these people have lost their humanity and show contempt for the poor Bludoi Zh. The ethnonym layesh comes from leie Cob ash boiled with water and used for personal hygiene instead of shampoo. In the past, when Roma layesh were wandering, they often washed their heads with this substance. Therefore their hair was always clean, soft and shiny. Today Roma layesh are considered to be the cleanest and tratament comun în Mironovka most beautiful people of Roma in physical aspect, because their ancestors were constantly moving and were closer to nature Cldraru,Nr.

The romantic aspect of the traditional lifestyle of the Gypsies and the native beauty of the Roma are described by European writers, including Vasile Alecsandri: Indeed, there is nothing more fanciful and original than a Gypsy band on the road. It happened so that once I saw a group of layesh passing, that spectacle impressed me greatly.

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I do not know if you have any idea of the curious survival of this nomadic people, who move from one field to another, from one village to another, from one forest to another What nice people Gypsies are!

They live in the mountains tratament comun în Mironovka their women are so slender and lively. One of them, Zamfira, was born on the bank of the river Olt. Zamfira spent all her childhood travelling from one region to another, stopping and setting tratament comun în Mironovka near markets in summer and in the forests in winter, in the huts of earth.

Those times were happy for her, as after sunrise she would run in the field with other children, taking butterflies from one flower to another, wandering through meadows, picking blackberries.

On Sundays she went to the village hora, went tratament comun în Mironovka the swings, but in the evening came back to the camp, sat near the fire and listened to the stories of old people, falling asleep cheerfully to whistle songs. She cared little that she had a worn shirt. When it was warm, she bathed in the river Olt, and when it was cold, she played a Gypsy dance tanana. She didnt know about slippers; she walked barefoot on green grass, and when she was tired her father put her in a pouch hanging across a back of a horse.

The nature has endowed her with the beauty that has nothing to do with a usual image of a passport, since Zamfira had: Eyes as blue as the sky after rain or as the flower of chicory; Eyelashes as long as a silk wave; Eyebrows arched as the arch of Love; Cheeks gently touched by the purple of sunrise; Mouth, 15 a half-open rosebud; Teeth, apple pomace or a pearl; Hair, black as a raven, woven into the braid decorated with flowers and silver coins; Neck of a swan, according to an old tradition; Breasts, dureri articulare atunci când se aplică and beautiful, a cradle of happiness on the Earth and another paradise of this world Alecsandri, The description of the layesh: the Roma who do not like to work, they are lazy, all day long they stay at home and do nothing, they only walk begging.

They are also called Roma khandini the language of the Roma: idle among the Gypsies. However, some Roma are called matiarni the language of the Roma: drunkard : even if they sometimes go and work during the day with the Moldovans, where they hardly make a kopeck; instead of bringing it home, they spend it on drinks.

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This category of the layesh khandini-matiarni has spread almost in every locality of the Republic of Moldova and currently makes Moldovan Roma the object of ridicule, because they live always waiting for humanitarian aid that they sometimes get Drangoi,Nr. This negative characteristic of the Roma the author encountered during his ethnological field researches carried out in was given by the researches about a century ago, too: Being lazy, the Gypsies are satisfied with the few things occasionally obtained.

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First of all, they need blue sky, the sun, songs and freedom. Gypsies will not change these things for anything in the world, neither for comfort they can get with the transition to sedentary lifesyle. Gypsy women lead an inactive lifestyle as their husbands do.

Revista de Etnologie Si Culturologie Vol.9-10

Their negligence has no limits; only when their clothes become rags, they throw them. Instead, Gypsy women are good at fortune telling and begging.

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They always take all the children with them. The children are always naked, dirty and unwashed, spread in all parts of the village. Old women believing the promises of the Gypsy women who say that God will send them happiness and wealth give them flour, eggs, grits and a new dress to wear. Gypsy women take everything what falls into their hands, wearing the same dirty and torn clothes in other villages dislocarea antecedentelor medicale ale articulației umărului they excite pity of the believing people to their unhappy fate, Most Roma from the Principality of Moldova have led a nomadic lifestyle for five centuries and roamed these tratament comun în Mironovka stopping only where it was more profitable for them.